(There are clinical studies topically related to our research here. We prefer to base our nutritional products on clinical studies more than testimonies. Some studies are listed at the end of particular articles. More can be found under the general topics of Monolaurin, Lactoferrin, Essential Oils, etc.)
Antonio, M. A., S. E. Hawes, and S. L. Hillier. 1999. The identification of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the demographic and microbiologic characteristics of women colonized by these species. J. Infect. Dis.180:1950–1956.
Bergsson, G., J. Arnfinnsson, Ó. Steingrímsson, and H. Thormar. Killing of gram-positive cocci by fatty acids and monoglycerides.
Bergsson G, Arnfinnsson J, Steingrímsson O , Thormar H. Monolaurin and Caprylic Acid Kill Candida Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
Boris, S., and C. Barbes. 2000. Role played by lactobacilli in controlling the population of vaginal pathogens. Microbes Infect. 2:543–546.
Crouch AA et al. (1991) Effect of human milk and infant milk formulae on adherence of Giardia intestinalis. Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hygiene 85:617-619.
Eckert, L. O. 2006. Clinical practice. Acute vulvovaginitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 355:1244–1252.
Eschenbach, D. A., S. Hillier, C. Critchlow, C. Stevens, T. DeRouen, and K. K. Holmes. 1988. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of bacterial vaginosis.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158:819–828.
Fichorova, R. N., P. J. Desai, F. C. Gibson III, and C. A. Genco. 2001. Distinct proinflammatory host responses to Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in immortalized human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells. Infect. Immun.69:5840–5848.
Fichorova, R. N., L. D. Tucker, and D. J. Anderson. 2001. The molecular basis of nonoxynol-9-induced vaginal inflammation and its possible relevance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J. Infect. Dis. 184:418–428.
Fidel, P. L., Jr. 2004. History and new insights into host defense against vaginal candidiasis. Trends Microbiol. 12:220–227.
Geisler, W. M., S. Yu, M. Venglarik, and J. R. Schwebke. 2004. Vaginal leucocyte counts in women with bacterial vaginosis: relation to vaginal and cervical infections. Sex. Transm. Infect. 80:401–405.
Glycerol Monolaurate does not alter rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) vaginal lactobacilli and is safe for chronic use. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2008 December; 52(12): 4448-4454
Hawes, S. E., S. L. Hillier, J. Benedetti, C. E. Stevens, L. A. Koutsky, P. Wolner-Hanssen, and K. K. Holmes. 1996. Hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli and acquisition of vaginal infections. J. Infect. Dis. 174:1058–1063.
Bergsson G, Arnfinnsson J, Karlsson S M, Steingrímsson Ó, Thormar H. In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:2290–2294.
Hernell O et al. (1986) Killing of Giardia lamblia by human milk lipases: an effect mediated by lipolysis of milk lipids. J Infect Dis 153:715-720.
Isaacs C E, Kim K S, Thormar H. Inactivation of enveloped viruses in human bodily fluids by purified lipids. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;724:457–464.
Isaacs C E, Litov R E, Thormar H. Antimicrobial activity of lipids added to human milk, infant formula, and bovine milk. Nutr Biochem. 1995;6:362–366.
Kabara J J, Swieczkowski D M, Conley A J, Truant J P. Fatty acids and derivatives as antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1972;2:23–28.
Kabara J J. Fatty acids and derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In: Kabara J J, editor. The pharmacological effect of lipids. St. Louis, Mo: American Oil Chemists Society; 1978. pp. 1–14.
Kristmundsdóttir T, Árnadóttir S, Bergsson G, Thormar H. Development and evaluation of microbicidal hydrogels containing monoglyceride as the active ingredient. J Pharm Sci. 1999;88:1011–1015.
Neyts J, Kristmundsdóttir T, De Clercq E, Thormar H. Hydrogels containing monocaprin prevent intravaginal and intracutaneous infections with HSV-2 in mice: impact on the search for vaginal microbicides. J Med Virol. 2000;61:107–110
Onderdonk, A. B., M. L. Delaney, G. R. Zamarchi, M. L. Hirsch, A. Munoz, and E. H. Kass. 1989. Normal vaginal microflora during use of various forms of catamenial protection. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11(Suppl. 1):S61– S67.
Onderdonk, A. B., G. R. Zamarchi, M. L. Rodriguez, M. L. Hirsch, A. Munoz, and E. H. Kass. 1987. Quantitative assessment of vaginal microflora during use of tampons of various compositions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:2774–2778.
Patton, D. L., Y. C. Sweeney, L. K. Rabe, and S. L. Hillier. 1996. The vaginal microflora of pig-tailed macaques and the effects of chlorhexidine and benzalkonium on this ecosystem. Sex. Transm. Dis. 23:489–493.
Peterson, M., K. Ault, M. J. Kremer, A. J. Klingelhutz, C. C. Davis, C. A. Squier, and P. M. Schlievert. 2005. Innate immune system is activated by stimulation of vaginal epithelial cells with Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Infect. Immun. 73:2164–2174.
Peterson, M. L., P. M. Schlievert, K. L. Strandberg, L. C. Case, Y. C. Lin, M. C. Pack, and D. J. Chase. 2007. Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin production in vivo is reduced by glycerol monolaurate (GML) tampons, abstr. E450B. Abstr. 47th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
Reiner DS et al. (1986) Human milk kills Giardia lamblia by generating toxic lipolytic products. J Infect Dis 154:825-832.
Ryan K J. John C. Sherris (ed.), Medical microbiology, an introduction to infectious diseases. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc.; 1990. Candida and other opportunistic fungi; pp. 651–657.
Shibasaki I, Kato N. Combined effects on antibacterial activity of fatty acids and their esters against gram-negative bacteria. In:
Kabara J J, editor. The pharmacological effects of lipids. St. Louis, Mo: American Oil Chemists Society; 1978. pp. 15–24.
Sobel, J. D., S. Faro, R. W. Force, B. Foxman, W. J. Ledger, P. R. Nyirjesy, B. D. Reed, and P. R. Summers. 1998. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 178:203–211.
Spence, D. 2004. Candidiasis (vulvovaginal). Clin. Evid. 2:493–511.
Tokarskyy O, Marshall DL. Monolaurin Incorproates Into Gram Positive Bacteria Cell Membranes Appl Environ Microbiol.
Welsh J K, Arsenakis M, Coelen R J, May J T. Effect of antiviral lipids, heat, and freezing on the activity of viruses in human milk. J Infect Dis. 1979;140:322–328.