(There are clinical studies topically related to our research here. We prefer to base our nutritional products on clinical studies more than testimonies. Some studies are also listed at the end of particular articles. More studies can be found under the general topics of Monolaurin, Lactoferrin, Essential Oils, etc.)
MonoLaurin, MonoCaprylin and MonoMyristin
“Monolaurin and monomyristin…inhibited cell growth from Bacillus cereus T, Clostridium botulinum 62A, and Clostridium sporogenes PA3679 spores and vegetative cells. Monomyristin had the same activity on the three strains. Monolaurin and monomyristin affected germination and outgrowth…Monolaurin inhibited outgrowth, but monomyristin (0.331 to 0.497 mM) affected germination of 62A spores.
-Journal of Food Protection http://jfoodprotection.org/doi/pdf/10.4315/0362-028X-59.7.716
“The effects monoglycerides were studied: monocaprylin (8:0), monolaurin (12:0), myristic acid (14:0) and monocaprin (10:0) caused a greater than 10,000-fold reduction in the infectivity titer. Monocaprin was the most active, causing a greater than 100,000-fold and suggest that these lipids have specific antichlamydial effects.
-1998 U. Of Ireland study. http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/9/2290
“Caprylic acid is a medium-chain fatty acid reported to be effective in killing a variety of bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter jejuni. Caprylic acid decreased Campylobacter colonization in the 3-d treatment supplementation.
-2009 study at the U. of Arkansas, https://academic.oup.com/ps/article-lookup/doi/10.3382/ps.2008-00228
(These are some monolaurin-related research studies for you to read online or in your local university library that are cited in the High Blood Pressure Hoax by Sherry A. Rogers, M.D.)
Ascherio A., Munger K.L., Lenette E.T., Spiegelman D., Hernan M.A., Olek M.J., Hankinson S.E., and Hunter, D.J. JAMA 286(24:3127-9, Dec. 26th, 2001.
Simmons A. “Herpes virus and multiple sclerosis,” Herpes 8(3):60-3, Nov. 2001.
Boddie , RL, Nickerson, SE, Evaluation of post milking teat germicides containing Lauricidin, saturated fatty acids, and lactic acid. Journal of Dairy Science, 75: 6: 1725-30, 1992.
Hierholzer , JC, Kabara, JJ, In vitro effects of monolaurin compounds on enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, Journal of Food Safety, 4:1, 1982.
Ismail-Cassim , N. et al, Inhibition of the uncoating of bovine enterovirus by short chain fatty acids, Journal of General Virology, 71: 10: 22 83-9, 1990. Karbara , Lipids as host-resistance factors in human milk, Nutrition Reviews 38:65, 1980.
Sands, J, et al. Extreme sensitivity of enveloped viruses, including Herpes Simplex, to long chain unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 15; 1:67-73, 1979.
(See also the books by Stephen Sinatra, M.D. titled, The Sinatra Solution: Metabolic Cardiology , and Lower Your Blood Pressure in 8 Week. Also read the article online in a PDF file, Metabolic Cardiology , by Dr. Sinatra.)
(Avian Flu Talk Forum):
The authors of the monolaurin study noted at the Avian Flu Talk Forum are noted as: (Cohen et al. 1977; Sands et al. 1979; Kabara, 1980; Kohn et al. 1980).
According to the Center for Research on Lauric Oils, Inc., press release of August 1, 1999,“fatty acids in coconut have always been found to both raise the HDL levels and improve the total cholesterol to HDL ratio, both of which are desirable, and (ii) these saturated fatty acids Significantly lower the levels of the undesirable lipoprotein.”
See the article “Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus in Cardiovascular Disease.” Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century, Infections and the Cardiovascular System: New Perspectives, 10.1007/0-306-47926-5_7, by I. W. Fong.
Also see the book, The High Blood Pressure Hoax, by Sherry A. Rogers, M.D. (2005), pages 81, 82, and 87.
(Additional Clinical Studies):
Chipley. J R . Story. L.D.. Todd, P,T. and Kabara, J.J. Inhibition of Aspergillus Growth and Extracellular Aflatoxin Accumulation by Sorbic Acid and Derivatives of Fatty acids. J. Food Safety 3:109-119 (1981).
Chipley, J.R., Todd, P.T., Atchley, F. and Kabara, J.J. Effects of Fatty Acid Derivatives on theRelease of Extracelluiar Enzymes from Bacteria. In: The Pharmacological Effect of Lipids 11, Jon J. Kabara, ed. American Oil Chemists’ Society: Champaign, Illinois, pp. 97-102 (1985).
Conley. A J and Kabara. J.J. Antimicrobial Action of Esters of Polyhydric Alcohols. Antimicrob. Ag and Chemother 4:501-506 (1973)
Craig, G.B., et al. Decreased fat and nitrogen losses in patients with AIDS receiving medium-chain-triglyceride-enriched formula vs those receiving long-chain-triglyceride-containing formula. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97:605-611.
Crouch AA, Seow WK, Whitman LM, Thong YH. Effect of human milk and infant milk formulae on adherence of Giardia intestinalis.; Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1991;85:617-619.
Dodge JA and Sagher FA. Antiviral and antibacterial lipids in human milk and infant formula. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1991;66:272- 273.
Enig, MG. Lauric oils as antimicrobial agents: theory of effect, scientific rationale, and dietary applications as adjunct nutritional support for HIV-infected individuals. in Nutrients and Foods in AIDS (RR Watson, ed) CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1998, pp. 81-97.
Epstein SE, Speir E, Zhou YF, Guetta E, Leon M, Finkel T. The role of infection in restenosis and atherosclerosis: focus on cytomegalovirus. Lancet 19%;348 Supplement 1:513-17.
Fletcher, R.D., Albers, A.C., Albertson, J.N. Jr. and Kabara, J.J. Effect of Monoglycerides on Mycoplasma pneumoniae Growth.
In: The Pharmacological Effect of Lipids 11, Jon J. Kabara, ed. American Oil Chemists’ Society: Champaign, Illinois, pp. 59-63 (1985).
Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits the Effects of Gram Positive Select Agents on Eukaryotic Cells. Biochemistry. 2006 February; 45(7): 2387-2397
Glycerol Monolaurate inhibits Virulence Factor Production in Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2005 April; 49(4): 1302-1305
Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) in Virgin Coconut Oil destroys tuberculosis bacteria. Living with Nature by Dr. Abercio V. Rotor, 2009 June.
Hierholzer, J.C. and Kabara, J.J. In vitro effects of monolaurin compounds on enveloped RNA and DNA viruses. Journal of Food Safety 1982;4:1-12.
Holland KT, Taylor D, Farrell AM. The effect of glycerol monolaurate on growth of, and production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and lipase by, Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Anti-microbial Chemotherapy 1994;33:41-55.
Homung B, Arntmann E, Sauer G. Lauric acid inhibits the maturation of vesicular storriatitis virus. Journal of General Virology 1994;75:353- 361.
Isaacs CE, Thormar H. Membrane-disruptive effect of human milk: inactivation of enveloped viruses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1986; 154:966-971.
Isaacs CE, Schneidman K. Enveloped Viruses in Human and Bovine Milk are Inactivated by Added Fatty Acids (FAs) and Monoglycerides (MGs). FASEB Journal 1991;5: Abstract 5325, p. A1288.
Ismail, I.A . Lie Ken Jie and Gunstone, F D Antimicrobial Action of Isomeric Fatty Acids on Group A Streptococcus J. Med Chem 16:1060-1063 (1973).
Li, C.Y. and Kabara. J.J. Effects of Lauricidin-on Fornes Annosus and Phellinus Weirii. In The Pharmacological Effect of Lipids. Jon J. Kabara, ed. Chamaign, Illionis: The American Oil Chemists’ Society (1979). pp. 45-50.
Neyts, J., et al. Hydrogels containing monocaprin prevent intravaginal and intracutaneous infections with HSV-2 in mice: impact on the search for vaginal microbicides. J Med Virol 2000;61(1):107-110.
Peterson, M. L., and P. M. Schlievert. 2006. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the effects of gram-positive select agents on eukaryotic cells. Biochemistry 45:2387–2397.
Schlievert, P. M., J. R. Deringer, M. H. Kim, S. J. Projan, and R. P. Novick. 1992. Effect of glycerol monolaurate on bacterial growth and toxin production. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:626–631.
Thormar, H., et al. Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1987;31(1):27-31.
Vetter, S., T. J. Tripp, and P. M. Schlievert. 2005. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits virulence factor production in Bacillus anthracis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:1302–1305.
Wang LL and Johnson EA. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1992;58:624-629.
Wanke, C.A., et al. A medium chain triglyceride-based diet in patients with HIV and chronic diarrhea reduces diarrhea and malabsorption: a prospective, controlled trial. Nutrition 1996;12:766-771.
Witcher KJ, Novick RP, Schlievert PM. Modulation of immune cell proliferation by glycerol monolaurate. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 1996;3:10-13.
And, of course, many articles by the original proponent of monolaurin, now retired, Dr. Kabara:
Kabara. J.J, Swieczkowski, D M. Conley. A J and Truant, J P Fatty Acids and Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2(l):23-28 (1972) Kabara. J.J.. Conley. A J.- Swieczkowski. D M.
Kabara, J J and Conley. A J A Non-Caloric Role for MCT and Other Lipids In: Mittelkettige Trigiyceride (MCT) in der Diat. Zur Zeitschrih Fur Ernahrungswissenschah Supplenta No 17. H. Kaunitz K Lang and W Fekl, eds pp 17-26 (1974)
Kabara. J.J. Lipids as Safe and Effective Antimicrobial Agents for Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals. Cosmetics and Perfumery 90:21-25 (1975).
Kabara, J.J. Monolaurin as an Antimicrobial Agent. U.S. Patent Number 4,002,775. Med-Chem Laboratories, January 1977.
Kabara, J.J. Antimicrobial agents derived from fatty acids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 1984;61:397-403.
Kabara. J.J., Vrable, R. and Lie Ken Jie, M.S.F Antimicrobial Lipids: Natural and Synthetic Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides. Lipids 12:753759 (1977).
Kabara, J.J. Synergistic Microbiocidal Composition and Method. U.S. Patent Number 4,067,997. January 10, 1978
Kabara, JJ Fatty Acids and Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents-A Review. In: The Pharmacological Effect of Lipids. Jon J.
Kabara, ed Champaign, Illinois: The American Oil Chemists’ Society (1979),pp. 1-14
Kabara, ed. Chamaign, Illionis: The American Oil Chemists’ Society (1979). pp. 45-50.
Kabara, J.J. Toxicological, Bactericidal and Fungicidal Properties of Fatty Acids and Some Derivatives JAOCS 56:760-767
Kabara, J.J., editor The Pharmacological Effect of Lipids I . American Oil Chemists’ Society: Champaign, Illinois (1979).
Kabara. J.J. Lipids as Host Resistance Factors of Human Milk Nutrition Reviews 38:65-73 (1980).
Kabara, J.J. Antimicrobial Compositions. U.S. Patent Number 4,189,481 February 19 1980.
Kabara, J.J. Medium-Chain Fatty Acids and Esters as Antimicrobial Agents. In: Cosmetic and Drug Presentation: Principles and Practice, Jon J.
Kabara, ed., New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., pp. 275-304 (1984). Hierholzer, J.C. and Kabara, J.J. In Vitro Effects of Monolaurin Compounds on Enveloped RNA and DNA Viruses. J. Of Food Safety 4:1-12 (1982).
Kabara. J.J. Antimicrobial Agents Derived From Fatty Acids. J. American Oil Chemists’ Society 61:397- 403 (1984).
Kabara, J.J. Ohkawa, M., Ikekawa, T., Katori, T. and Nishikawa, Y. Examinations on Antitumor Immunological, and Plant-Growth Inhibitory Effects of Monoglycerides of Caprylic, Capric, and Lauric Acids and Related Compounds. In: The Pharmacological Effect of Lipids 11, Jon J.
Kabara, ed. American Oil Chemists’ Society: Champaign, Illinois, pp. 263-272 (1985). Kabara, J.J., Editor. The Pharmacological Effects of Lipids II, American Oil Chemists’ Society: Champaign, Illinois (1985). Flournoy,
D.J. and Kabara, J.J. The Role of LauricidinÆ as an Antimicrobial Agent. In: Drugs of Today 21(8):373-377 (1985).
Kabara, J.J., Editor. The Pharmacological Effects of Lipids III, American Oil Chemists’ Society: Champaign, Illinois (1989).
Kabara, Jon J, Pharmacological effects of coconut oil vs. monoglycerides Inform June 2005 pp386 Bergsson G, Amfinnsson J, Karlsson SN’rSteingrinisson 0, Thormar H. In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1998;42:2290-2294